Biomaker.org

Aims of the Biomaker initiative

The field of Synthetic Biology is introducing low-cost, breakthrough technologies for a wide range of practical challenges including diagnostics, environmental conservation, microbial bioproduction, crop improvement and human health. These are of critical importance to the future well-being and economic development of sustainable societies across the planet.

Synthetic Biology is adopting technical engineering approaches for the reprogramming of biological systems, including: (i) the introduction of standardised, modular DNA parts and new methods for rapid assembly of synthetic genetic circuits, (ii) new legal frameworks, repositories and open source technologies for the free exchange of genetic components, (iii) Production of simple, DNA-programmable cell free expression systems that can be freeze-dried, shipped and stored without refrigeration. These are GMO-free and can be used in the field or classroom without expensive facilities or elaborate containment, and (iv) systems for transient gene expression in contained hosts, and transgene-free genome editing to reduce the costs, resources and regulatory hurdles associated with the deployment of genetically modified organisms.

The Biomaker programme provides funding for project-based learning at the intersection of electronics, 3D printing, sensor technology, low cost DIY instrumentation and biology. Biomaker aims to build open tools and promote development of research skills and interdisciplinary collaborations. The programme is being built in three stages. First, we are exploiting existing open standards and a rich ecosystem of resources for microcontrollers, first established to simplify programming and physical computing for designers, artists and scientists. These resources provide a simple environment for biologists to learn programming and hardware skills, and develop real-world laboratory tools. Further, the Biomaker projects provide a direct route for physical scientists and engineers to get hands-on experience with biological systems. Second, we will introduce cell-free systems to implement DNA programming in a way that is low-cost and easy to implement. Third, we will develop appliances and open curricula for worldwide use.

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Synthetic Biology technologies are relatively low-cost, but their adoption is often limited by deficits in technical training, poor access to new research materials, inadequate laboratory facilities, and lack of strategic partnerships with leading research institutions. We aim to develop tools for improved synthetic biology training in schools, universities, community labs and industry. We believe that efforts to develop open standards and protocols for DNA parts and low-cost DIY tools will provide a major impetus for democratisation of this new technology, and facile transfer from richer to poorer countries.

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The Biomaker initiative funds small-scale projects at the intersection of the new biology and other sciences, in order to engineer low-cost tools, real-world applications and explore policy development. 

Our two main aims are:

1. To encourage interdisciplinary and inter-institutional collaborations and promote wider exchange of skills and innovation.

2. To generate open, low-cost tools and methods that can be used for training and technology transfer worldwide.

Biotechnology is fertile ground for international exchange, and capacity-building based on open technologies and exchange should be a major component of any funding initiative. Synthetic biology can provide better solutions for: (i) rapid-response production of vaccines and biologics, (ii) point-of-use diagnostics and field biosensors, (iii) agricultural crop improvement using non-transgenic (genome editing) tools, and (iv) harnessing local biodiversity to build a sustainable bioeconomy.

In each of these applications, the development of practical solutions and social impact requires: Shared curricula for training and biotechnology education in resource-poor communities and institutes; Building local expertise through exchange and shared knowledge; and Establishing in-country facilities for generation and exchange of open-source tools and materials. 

 

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Starter kits for building biology

The Biomaker programme has been funded from a variety of sources, starting with £90K support for mini-projects by a Strategic Research Initiative for Synthetic Biology at the University of Cambridge (http://www.synbio.cam.ac.uk). This was followed by £500K support from the BBSRC/EPSRC OpenPlant Synthetic Biology Research Centre (https://www.openplant.org). These allowed the creation of new interdisciplinary team projects across Cambridge and Norwich with seed funding for each team. Every six months, a call is launched for innovative projects that will bring new people and ideas together. Teams are required to make a short application for funding, for a project that must lead to tangible, publicly documented and open outcomes, which could include (but are not limited to): design files and prototype for a hardware project, software development and documentation, a white paper arising from a workshop, (iv) educational resource or synthesis and sharing of useful DNA parts or vectors. We look for short-term projects that might be completed in a roughly six-month period. 

The teams are usually made up of graduate students or postdoctoral workers, but have included undergraduate teams and faculty. They must have agreement from their supervisor and institutional cost-code holder that the proposed project and management of the allocated funding will fit with their existing work. The teams must pitch their idea to their peers and a team of judges. The projects are ranked, evaluated for the prospect of tangible outcomes that can be readily shared, promotion of interdisciplinary working and exchange, relevance to synthetic biology, open technologies and responsible innovation, realistic scope for timing, costing and the proposed team, and evidence for any external collaborations and matching support.

To date, we have funded around 140 mini-projects, with overwhelmingly positive outcomes for interdisciplinary collaboration, sharing and propagation of research tools and training, and production of open tools for innovation. We have found that the development of bioinstrumentation is an efficient way of promoting cross-over between biology and the physical sciences, computing and engineering. In 2017 we developed a new model, the Biomaker Challenge, to provide a lower cost and more portable way of expanding this programme.

The Biomaker Challenge is based on a £100 Starter Kit for bioinstrumentation, which is designed to allow biologists, who might be unfamiliar with electronics and programming, to collaborate share trading with scientists and engineers, who have little experience with biological systems. The Starter Kit is based on simple, open Arduino technology and resources (http://www.arduino.cc), and includes training resources that require no prior knowledge of the system. It includes a comprehensive prototyping environment and a 4D Systems programmable touchscreen for the creation of sophisticated portable user interfaces and displays. The teams have time to develop their devices, document these on Github and Hackster, and come together as part of a public exhibition of open technology, the Biomaker Fayre in Cambridge. We hope that this streamlined model for developing interdisciplinary exchange will be of wider interest, and we looking for ways to develop international collaborations. We believe that this model provides new opportunities to develop and share low-cost tools for biological research and teaching. 

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Cell-free biology

Recent technical advances in the preparation of microbial cell-free extracts have given rise to a new class of highly efficient systems for gene expression that are cheap to deploy and have huge potential benefit for the provision of a wide variety of diagnostics, sensors, vaccines and research materials. Further, the extracts can be stored desiccated, stable for over a year, and reactivated at the point of use by hydration. The cell free extracts can be programmed by the addition of DNA to allow rapid and simple prototyping of gene circuits for diagnostics or bioproduction.

In vitro biology provides a number of key advantages for the design, assembly and testing of DNA encoded circuits for diagnostics and environmental sensing. Cell-free extracts avoid the complications, delays and regulatory uncertainty associated with uncontained of GMOs, while providing opportunities for high level, low cost training and capacity building. The emerging technology enables engineering of DNA circuits without the need for genetic modification and in a low cost manner that makes it accessible for researchers in low resource settings.

Biomaker is sponsoring efforts to integrate cell-free biology materials into future Starter Kits, and to promote programmatic approaches to biology for practical application and training.

 

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Development of low-cost and modular curriculum materials

The field of Synthetic Biology has pioneered the adoption of standardised and modular approaches to reprogramming biological systems. We believe that the combination of commodity electronics and optics with cell-free biological systems will enable radically different approaches to the teaching of this "new biology", and will allow the development of a new generation of curriculum materials for project-based learning, that are both cheap and highly accessible for students who might otherwise be excluded from engaging with this topic. We believe that efforts like the Biomaker Challenge are needed to underpin interdisciplinary innovation that will be at the heart of the biology-based sustainable technologies of the coming century - and to facilitate and democratise global access to innovation in the bioeconomy.